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spatial information related terms

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Australian Spatial Data Directory (ASDD), an on-line catalogue of spatial metadata comprising multiple nodes around Australia, all of which can be queried simultaneously.

Australian Spatial Data Infrastructure (ASDI) comprises the people, policies and technologies necessary to enable the use of spatially referenced data through all levels of government, the private and non-profit sectors and academia.

Distribution Network comprises the mechanisms to allow search, discovery, view and download of spatial datasets made available under the ASDI.

Geocode. Any number of geographic location systems, including street address, area code, administrative or postal district and geographic coordinates.

Geocoding. The process of assigning a code (e.g. name, number) to a geographic feature (see reverse geocoding).

Geographic information (see spatial information)

Geographic Information System (GIS). A computer system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, analysing and displaying data related to positions on the earth's surface. Typically a Geographic Information System—also known as Spatial Information Systems—is used for handling maps of one kind or another. These might be represented as several different layers where each layer holds data about a particular kind of feature. Each feature is linked to a position on the graphical image of a map. Layers of data are organised to be studied and to perform statistical analysis.

Georeferencing. The assignment of coordinates of an absolute geographic reference system to a geographic feature. In remote sensing it is a process of taking an image and assigning it geographic coordinates.

Geomatics. The science and technology of gathering, analysing, interpreting, distributing and using geographic information. Geomatics encompasses a broad range of disciplines that can be brought together to create a detailed but understandable picture of the physical world and our place in it. These disciplines include surveying and mapping; remote sensing; geographic information systems; and global positioning systems.

Global Positioning System (GPS). A satellite-based navigational system allowing the determination of a unique point on the earth's surface with a high degree of accuracy given a suitable GPS receiver. The network of satellites is owned by the US Department of Defense. Error i the accuracy of GPS derived positions can be introduced through the nature of conditions. These errors can be greatly reduced using a technique known as differential GPS.

Integratability is the ability to integrate data across multiple themes to improve its usability. Many projects require several datasets to be integrated and overlain (GIS) in order to show relationships. Use of a common datum, projection and data model components allows for such integration to occur.

Interoperability is the ability to link (service chaining) different applications regardless of proprietary software used at the source together so that several web services are available concurrently. The Open Geospatial Consortium interoperability specifications allow different servers and their applications to recognise and talk to one another.

The ability to transfer and use information in a uniform and efficient manner across multiple organisations and information technology systems. It underpins the level of benefits accruing to enterprises, governments and the wider economy through e-commerce (source: NOIE).

The ability for a system or components of a system to provide information portability and inter-application, cooperative process control (source: OGC).

Metadata is information about data. Metadata can exist for datasets, web services and project information. Metadata can be searched through a common web interface known as the Australian Spatial Data Directory (also known as the ASDD).

Reverse geocoding is the ability to collect a geographic coordinate, which can be acquired from a global positioning system (GPS), a wireless operators network or a database, and find a geographical feature such as a street address.

Spatial information (also known as geographic information) is any information that can be geographically referenced, i.e. describing a location or any information that can be linked to a location.

Spatial information industry. The spatial information industry is engaged directly or indirectly in supplying spatial information products and associated services. The industry is comprised of a range of disciplines, which include remote sensing and photogrammetry, mapping and surveying, land administration and geographic information systems, together with related software development and provision of value-added services. Its major product markets and user communities include environmental monitoring, mobile location-based services, customer relationship management and the management of natural resources, assets, land and emergencies (source: SIIAA 2001). It contains a wide range of commercial (private sector) entities; government agencies at national, State, Territory, regional and local levels; not for profit bodies in the academic sector and non-government organisations; and bodies falling among and across these sectors, such as commercialised government enterprises, joint ventures and research and development corporations.